Lesson 2: Basic Sentences
In Lesson 1 we touched on a basic conversation, but it included
mostly interjections and one Basic Sentence. In this lesson we will explore the Basic Sentence further
and show you how to use different subjects, action words and objects. In Lajyma, the "Basic Sentence" will
take the form of Subject-Tense-Action-Object. Which means that one subject will be performing an action on an
object. For example: Lana eats apples. Lana is the subject, eats is the action and apples is the object.
This is one of the most basic ways to communicate a thought and we will introduce you to a few new action
words to use in sentences like this.
Verb Tense Identifiers
In Lesson 1 we saw the word uda
being use as a Verb Tense Identifier for the Simple Present tense. In later lessons we will learn about
the other tenses and their identifiers but for now, since this is the most basic tense, we will start there.
Putting the word uda before a nominal will turn those words into a 'verbial phrase'.
This means that the nominal after the tense is the action for that particular thought. The word before the tense
(also can be a nominal but very often will be a pronoun like I, you, him etc) is the subject, or actor, of the sentence.
It may seem awkward at first using nouns as action words, but remember in English we do this quite a bit.
In English you might say something like "I take a stand". In this sentence "I" is the subject, "take"
is the action and "a stand" is the object. Here the word "stand" is normally a verb, but in this context it
is being used as a noun. Actions in Lajyma work very similarly to this noun usage except by adding a tense
to a noun, it becomes an action. These types of nouns are called Nominals and there is no equivalent to a nominal
in English, so this will likely be a new concept for you. Fortunately it is easy to learn and makes quite
a bit of sense once you get the hang of it.
There are a few different types of actions you can communicate with a language, the most simple would be
something like "I eat". This is very simple, direct and the bare minimum for a complete thought. Adding
a little more information to the sentence, you might say "I eat apples". This is still a simple sentence,
but its added an object into the mix. Since this is the most common type of sentence we'll try a few of
Here is a very simple sentence to start you out on: "I eat meat". The words you'll need for this are
"y", which is the pronoun for "I";
"uda", the Simple Present Tense Identifier;
"kulaga", the noun for meal; and
"aloga", the word for meat. Combining these words together we get the sentence:
y uda kulaga aloga,
which means "I eat meat". You can also replace the pronoun y with another
pronoun to change the subject of the sentence. In Lesson 1 I gave you
a list of Personal Pronouns in the Vocabulary side bar. These Personal Pronouns will appear at the top
of that Vocabulary side bar for the first few lessons. Here is a list of all of those pronouns and how
you would use each of them in this same sentence:
Expanding Your Vocabulary
Try to combine these new words on your own to come up with new sentences. You can use the Phrase Builder HERE
to help you build different simple STAO sentences.
Previous Lesson - Next Lesson
Using this sentence structure you can communicate many different ideas by replacing the Subject, Action
and/or Object of the sentence. In the Vocabulary side bar there is a number of nouns to use for both actions
and objects. For now keep practicing with Personal Pronouns for the subject of the sentence. Here are a few
samples using those new vocabulary words:
uda: simple present
ytarasa: love, like a lot